rqlite has been run through Jepsen-style testing. You can read about it here.
Even though serving queries does not require Raft consensus (because the database is not changed), queries should generally be served by the Leader. Why is this? Because, without this check, queries on a node could return results that are out-of-date i.e. stale. This could happen for one, or both, of the following two reasons:
- The node, while still part of the cluster, has fallen behind the Leader in terms of updates to its underlying database.
- The node is no longer part of the cluster, and has stopped receiving Raft log updates.
This is why rqlite offers selectable read consistency levels of weak (the default), strong, and none. Each is explained below, and examples of each are shown at the end of this page.
Weak consistency is used if you don’t specify any level.
Weak instructs the node to check that it is the Leader, before querying the local SQLite file. Checking Leader state only involves checking state local to the node, so is very fast. There is, however, a very small window of time (milliseconds by default) during which the node may return stale data. This is because after the local Leader check, but before the local SQLite database is read, another node could be elected Leader and make changes to the cluster. As result the node may not be quite up-to-date with the rest of cluster.
If the node determines it is not the Leader, the node will transparently forward the request to the Leader. The node then waits for the response from the Leader, and then returns that response to the client.
To avoid even the issues associated with weak consistency, rqlite also offers strong. In this mode, the Leader sends the query through the Raft consensus system, ensuring that the Leader remains the Leader at all times during query processing. When using strong you can be sure that the database reflects every change sent to it prior to the query. However, this will involve the Leader contacting at least a quorum of nodes, and will therefore increase query response times.
If a query request is sent to a Follower, and strong consistency is specified, the Follower will transparently forward the request to the Leader. The Follower waits for the response from the Leader, and then returns that response to the client.
With none, the node simply queries its local SQLite database, and does not perform any Leadership check. This offers the fastest query response, but suffers from the potential issues outlined above.
Limiting read staleness
You can tell the node not return results (effectively) staler than a certain duration, however. If a read request sets the query parameter
freshness to a Go duration string, the node serving the read will check that less time has passed since it was last in contact with the Leader, than that specified via freshness. If more time has passed the node will return an error.
freshness is ignored for all consistency levels except
none, and is also ignored if set to zero.
freshnessparameter is always ignored if the node serving the query is the Leader. Any read, when served by the Leader, is always going to be within any possible freshness bound.
If you decide to deploy read-only nodes however, none combined with
freshness can be a particularly effective at adding read scalability to your system. You can use lots of read-only nodes, yet be sure that a given node serving a request has not fallen too far behind the Leader (or even become disconnected from the cluster).
Which should I use?
Weak is probably sufficient for most applications, and is the default read consistency level. Unless your cluster Leader is continually changing there will be no difference between weak and strong – but using strong will result in slower queries, which is not what most people want.
How do I specify read consistency?
To explicitly select consistency, set the query param
level to the desired level. However, you should use none with read-only nodes, unless you want those nodes to actually forward the query to the Leader.
Examples of enabling each read consistency level for a simple query is shown below.
# Query the node, telling it simply to read the SQLite database directly. # No guarantees on how old the data is. In fact, the node may not even be # connected to the cluster. curl -G 'localhost:4001/db/query?level=none' --data-urlencode 'q=SELECT * FROM foo' # Query the node, telling it simply to read the SQLite database directly. # The read request will be successful only if the node last heard from the # leader no more than 1 second ago. curl -G 'localhost:4001/db/query?level=none&freshness=1s' --data-urlencode 'q=SELECT * FROM foo' # Default query options. The read request will be successful only # if the node believes it's the leader. curl -G 'localhost:4001/db/query?level=weak' --data-urlencode 'q=SELECT * FROM foo' # Default query options. The read request will be successful only # if the node believes it is the leader. Same as weak. curl -G 'localhost:4001/db/query' --data-urlencode 'q=SELECT * FROM foo' # The read request will be successful only if the node maintained cluster # leadership during the entirety of query processing. curl -G 'localhost:4001/db/query?level=strong' --data-urlencode 'q=SELECT * FROM foo'